Skip to main content



  1. MGA implant (F)
  2. MGA in feed (F)
    (a) for bovids, cervids and camelids less than 800 lb: 0.5 mg/day/animal
    (b) for bovids, cervids and camelids 800 lb or more: 1.0 mg/day/animal
    (c) for giraffes and Nile hippos: 2.0-3.0 mg/day/animal
  3. MGA liquid (F) Daily doses as for MGA feed above
  4. PZP vaccine (F) Short term: 2-3 consecutive years
  5. Depo-Provera® (F) injection
    (a) Giraffe dose: 450 mg every 6 weeks; if estrus occurs, increase by increments of 100 mg;
    (b) Nile hippopotamus dose: 800 mg every 6 weeks
    NOTE: Establishing a correct dosage is hampered by unavailability of body weight measures for individual giraffe and hippos
  6. GnRH Agonists (F) Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Agonists are considered the safest reversible contraceptives, but dosages and duration of efficacy are not well established for all species; side effects are generally similar to those associated with gonadectomy, especially the potential for weight gain unless diet is controlled; they have not been effective in male artiodactyls
    Suprelorin® (deslorelin) Implants
    Lupron® Depot Injection
  7. Improvest® Vaccine (F or M)


  1. Synthetic progestins may cause endometritis, pyometra and hydrometra
  2. PZP may not be reversible after long-term use (>3 consecutive years)
  3. Pregnant artiodactyls contracepted with progestins may be especially susceptible to suppression of uterine contractions; progestins should only be administered to animals CONFIRMED not pregnant.
  4. Depo-Provera may be a particular problem in pregnant females, since length of efficacy is so variable (approximate range: 2-24 months)
  5. GnRH agonists are not effective in male bovids; effectiveness unknown for other artiodactyls
  6. MGA feed and MGA liquid not recommended for suids; dose required for efficacy associated with side effects. The PZP Vaccine is not effective either, because it will not elicit an immune response in suids.
  7. Antler abnormalities such as malformations, full shedding of velvet, and occasional aberrant sheeting or breaking of full antlers, have been seen in some species of artiodactyls (Raphael et al., 2003).

Research and Monitoring

  1. PZP with Freund’s Incomplete Adjuvant, modified
  2. Surveillance for deleterious effects